SUBMARINES - A TO Z INDEX

 

 

ATLANTIS STORY MAP & OPERATION HOMEPAGE

 

 

 

 

 

 

'Operation Neptune' is an original story in the John Storm franchise, featuring the Lost City of Atlantis, extreme international climate change activism, involving nuclear submarines, including the discovery of Nazi Gold in a sunken U-Boat as a complication, and the struggle between protagonists and antagonists, as they each pursue their own objectives.

 

In this fictional adventure, climate change extremists become disillusioned with the almost total lack of action by the G7 and G20 to tackle global warming. A battle hardened crew, having been imprisoned during peaceful protests, decide to ramp things up to tackle governments acting more like Nazi Germany, concerning freedom of speech, with the UK being one of the most unreasonable. The Eco warriors plan to steal an Astute class submarine, and torpedo North Sea oil rigs using a Predator HK. Fearing they have little to lose, having already been let down by the system.

 

Nuclear weapons of war are now illegal, as per the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW), or the Nuclear Weapon Ban Treaty, is the first legally binding international agreement to comprehensively prohibit nuclear weapons with the ultimate goal being their total elimination. It was adopted on 7 July 2017, opened for signature on 20 September 2017, and entered into force on 22 January 2021.

For those nations that are party to it, the treaty prohibits the development, testing, production, stockpiling, stationing, transfer, use and threat of use of nuclear weapons, as well as assistance and encouragement to the prohibited activities. For nuclear armed states joining the treaty, it provides for a time-bound framework for negotiations leading to the verified and irreversible elimination of its nuclear weapons programme.

A mandate adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 23 December 2016 scheduled two sessions for negotiations: 27 to 31 March and 15 June to 7 July, 2017. The treaty passed on schedule on 7 July with 122 in favour, 1 against (Netherlands), and 1 official abstention (Singapore). Sixty-nine nations did not vote, among them all of the nuclear weapon states and all NATO members except the Netherlands.

 

THE UNACCEPTABLE RISK OF RADIATION POLLUTION TO LIFE ON EARTH

 

As you can see from the list of nuclear powered submarines, there are literally hundreds of potential nuclear radiation accidents waiting to happen. And that is without firing a single missile armed with an atomic bomb.

 

All of which demonstrates just how stupid men and women can be, driven by fear, and their need to show they have a bigger dick than their enemies. It is truly a penis measuring competition, by warmongers. The worst of which, and obviously least secure being, the six nations who operate such machines - at great cost to their economies.

 

But, in the eyes of the remaining sensible nations, they are operating illegally. The problem being, that nuclear weapons were not stomped on at the very outset. Allowing Russia and America free reign to put the rest of the world at risk. With Russia entering into a nuclear frenzy. Their generals most likely belong in mental institutions, alongside their US and UK counterparts.

 

These risks could all be eliminated, using the Predator system to sink every illegal nuclear powered vessel, to include aircraft carriers. Thus, it could be argued, that the (fictional) Terramentals are knights of the new age of enlightenment.

 

Drones are the modern way to police nations, perhaps using robotic soldiers, to eliminate as far as possible deaths on battlefields. Drones are allied to intelligence, as to conflicts. And conflicts involving a nation killing innocent civilians, including internal quarrels, could invoke peace keeping operations on foreign soil, and responsible quashing of violence. But, unlike the invasion of Iraq, such peace-keeping missions must be based on reliable intel. Rather than fabricated evidence. Making those who abuse their positions of trust, war criminals and fraudsters.

 

 

 

 

Astute class submarine, British Royal Navy

 

 

 


A nuclear submarine is a submarine powered by a nuclear reactor, but not necessarily armed with nuclear missiles. Nuclear submarines have considerable performance advantages over "conventional" (typically diesel-electric) submarines. Nuclear propulsion, being completely independent of air, frees the submarine from the need to surface frequently, as is necessary for conventional submarines. The large amount of power generated by a nuclear reactor allows nuclear submarines to operate at high speed for long periods, and the long interval between refuelings grants a range virtually unlimited, making the only limits on voyage times being imposed by such factors as the need to restock food or other consumables.

The limited energy stored in electric batteries means that even the most advanced conventional submarine can only remain submerged for a few days at slow speed, and only a few hours at top speed, though recent advances in air-independent propulsion have somewhat ameliorated this disadvantage. The high cost of nuclear technology means that relatively few of the world's military powers have fielded nuclear submarines. Radiation incidents have occurred within the Soviet submarines including serious nuclear and radiation accidents.

Today, six countries deploy some form of nuclear-powered strategic submarines: 

United States, 
Russia, 
United Kingdom, 
France, 
China, and 
India. 

Several other countries including Brazil and Australia have ongoing projects in different phases to build nuclear-powered submarines. Australia, to be supplied by the United Kingdom, with Astute or Aukus weapons.

In the United Kingdom, all former and current nuclear submarines of the British Royal Navy (with the exception of three: HMS Conqueror, HMS Renown and HMS Revenge) have been constructed in Barrow-in-Furness (at BAE Systems Submarine Solutions or its predecessor VSEL) where construction of nuclear submarines continues. Conqueror is the only nuclear-powered submarine in the world ever to have engaged an enemy ship with torpedoes, sinking the cruiser ARA General Belgrano with two Mark 8 torpedoes during the 1982 Falklands War.

TECHNOLOGY

The main difference between conventional submarines and nuclear submarines is the power generation system. Nuclear submarines employ nuclear reactors for this task. They either generate electricity that powers electric motors connected to the propeller shaft or rely on the reactor heat to produce steam that drives steam turbines (cf. nuclear marine propulsion). Reactors used in submarines typically use highly enriched fuel (often greater than 20%) to enable them to deliver a large amount of power from a smaller reactor and operate longer between refuelings which are difficult due to the reactor's position within the submarine's pressure hull.

The nuclear reactor also supplies power to the submarine's other subsystems, such as for maintenance of air quality, fresh water production by distilling salt water from the ocean, temperature regulation, etc. All naval nuclear reactors currently in use are operated with diesel generators as a backup power system. These engines are able to provide emergency electrical power for reactor decay heat removal, as well as enough electric power to supply an emergency propulsion mechanism. Submarines may carry nuclear fuel for up to 30 years of operation. The only resource that limits the time underwater is the food supply for the crew and maintenance of the vessel.

The stealth technology weakness of nuclear submarines is the need to cool the reactor even when the submarine is not moving; about 70% of the reactor output heat is dissipated into the sea water. This leaves a "thermal wake", a plume of warm water of lower density which ascends to the sea surface and creates a "thermal scar" that is observable by thermal imaging systems, e.g., FLIR. Another problem is that the reactor is always running, creating steam noise, which can be heard on sonar, and the reactor pump (used to circulate reactor coolant), also creates noise, as opposed to a conventional submarine, which can move about on almost silent electric motors.

HISTORY

The idea for a nuclear-powered submarine was first proposed in the United States Navy by the Naval Research Laboratory's physicist Ross Gunn in 1939. The Royal Navy began researching designs for nuclear propulsion plants in 1946.

Construction of the world's first nuclear-powered submarine was made possible by the successful development of a nuclear propulsion plant by a group of scientists and engineers in the United States at the Naval Reactors Branch of the Bureau of Ships and the Atomic Energy Commission. In July 1951, the U.S. Congress authorized construction of the first nuclear-powered submarine, Nautilus, under the leadership of Captain Hyman G. Rickover, USN (sharing a name with Captain Nemo's fictional submarine Nautilus in Jules Verne's Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, and another USS Nautilus (SS-168) that served with distinction in World War II).

The Westinghouse Corporation was assigned to build its reactor. After the submarine was completed at the Electric Boat Company, First Lady Mamie Eisenhower broke the traditional bottle of champagne on Nautilus' bow, and the submarine was commissioned USS Nautilus (SSN-571), on 30 September 1954. On 17 January 1955, she departed Groton, Connecticut, to begin sea trials. The submarine was 320 feet (98 m) long and cost about $55 million. Recognizing the utility of such vessels, the British Admiralty formed plans to build nuclear-powered submarines.

The Soviet Union soon followed the United States in developing nuclear-powered submarines in the 1950s. Stimulated by the U.S. development of Nautilus, Soviets began work on nuclear propulsion reactors in the early 1950s at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, in Obninsk, under Anatoliy P. Alexandrov, later to become head of the Kurchatov Institute. In 1956, the first Soviet propulsion reactor designed by his team began operational testing. Meanwhile, a design team under Vladimir N. Peregudov worked on the vessel that would house the reactor. After overcoming many obstacles, including steam generation problems, radiation leaks, and other difficulties, the first nuclear submarine based on these combined efforts, K-3 Leninskiy Komsomol of the Project 627 Kit class, called a November-class submarine by NATO, entered service in the Soviet Navy in 1958.

The United Kingdom's first nuclear-powered submarine HMS Dreadnought was fitted with an American S5W reactor, provided to Britain under the 1958 US-UK Mutual Defence Agreement. The hull and combat systems of Dreadnought were of British design and construction, although the hull form and construction practices were influenced by access to American designs. During Dreadnought's construction, Rolls-Royce, in collaboration with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority at the Admiralty Research Station, HMS Vulcan, at Dounreay, developed a completely new British nuclear propulsion system. In 1960, the UK's second nuclear-powered submarine was ordered from Vickers Armstrong and, fitted with Rolls-Royce's PWR1 nuclear plant, HMS Valiant was the first all-British nuclear submarine.

 

Further technology transfers from the United States made Rolls-Royce entirely self-sufficient in reactor design in exchange for a "considerable amount" of information regarding submarine design and quietening techniques transferred from the United Kingdom to the United States. The rafting system for the Valiant class provided the Royal Navy with an advantage in submarine silencing that the United States Navy did not introduce until considerably later.

Nuclear power proved ideal for the propulsion of strategic ballistic missile submarines (SSB), greatly improving their ability to remain submerged and undetected. The world's first operational nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) was USS George Washington with 16 Polaris A-1 missiles, which conducted the first SSBN deterrent patrol November 1960 January 1961. The Soviets already had several SSBs of the Project 629 (Golf class) and were only a year behind the US with their first SSBN, ill-fated K-19 of Project 658 (Hotel class), commissioned in November 1960. However, this class carried the same three-missile armament as the Golfs. The first Soviet SSBN with 16 missiles was the Project 667A (Yankee class), the first of which entered service in 1967, by which time the US had commissioned 41 SSBNs, nicknamed the "41 for Freedom".

At the height of the Cold War, approximately five to ten nuclear submarines were being commissioned from each of the four Soviet submarine yards (Sevmash in Severodvinsk, Admiralteyskiye Verfi in St.Petersburg, Krasnoye Sormovo in Nizhny Novgorod, and Amurskiy Zavod in Komsomolsk-on-Amur). From the late 1950s through the end of 1997, the Soviet Union, and later Russia, built a total of 245 nuclear submarines, more than all other nations combined. Such is the measure of their limp dicks, and their commitment to wiping mankind off the face of the planet.

 

 

SUBMARINE INDEX

 

Alvin DSV - Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

AUKUS - Trilateral nuclear proliferation submarine pact, Australia, UK, US

HMS Astute 1st of Class BAE Systems

HMS Vanguard- Trident

INS Sindhurakshak - explosion & sinking

Lusitania - Torpedo attack

Nuclear PWR reactors for submarines

Nuclear submarines lost at sea

Predator - Covert submarine hunter/killer

Seawolf - Autonomous wolf pack deployment of Predator mini-subs

Torpedoes - UUV anti submarine weapons

U20 - Kapitan Lieutenant Walther Schwieger

U530 & U997 - Kriegsmarine Unterseeboots WWII

U534 - U-Boat sunk near Anholt, Denmark 1945, raised (no gold)

U986 - U-Boat declared missing in 20 April 1944 VIIC

USS Bluefish WWI submarine

USS Bluefish - Nuclear submarine

USS Flying Fish - Nuclear sub

USS Jimmy Carter - Seawolf class fast attack nuclear submarine

USS Nautilus - 1st nuclear submarine & subsea north pole passage

USS Scorpion - Skipjack class submarine 99 crew lost at sea

 

AIRCRAFT CARRIER INDEX

 

Cavour - Italy

Chakri Naruebet - Thailand

Clemenceau - France

Dokdo - Republic Korea

Gerald Ford Class - USA

Hyuga - Japan

Invincible - UK

Kuznetsov - Russia

Liaoning - China

Nimitz - USA

Principe de Asturias - Spain

Queen Elizabeth - UK

Vikrant Class - India

 

WARSHIPS

 

Bismarck - Battleship - Germany

HMS Neptune - Leander class cruiser 1941 WWII

Type 23 - Duke class frigate - UK

Type 26 - Global combat ship - UK

Type 45 - Daring class destroyer - UK

Electric prototype - USA

Zumwalt - Class destroyer - USA

 

 

 

OPERATION NEPTUNE CAST:

 

 

CHARACTERS: PROTAGONISTS

DESCRIPTION

Admiral Sir (Captain) Henry Morgan

Privateer & Governor of Jamaica

Ark, The

The world's most comprehensive interactive DNA database

BioCore

A digital communication interface for the human brain

Blackbeard

Edward Teach, privateer turned pirate, tortured & murdered

Captain Nemo

AI onboard computer system

Charley Temple

Researcher & camerwoman, good friend of John Storm

CyberCore Genetica

The world's smallest, fastest & most powerful supercomputer

Dan Hawk

Electronics & computer wizard, crew member Elizabeth Swann

Dr Roberta Treadstone

Blue Shield, Newcastle University, England

Elizabeth Swann

Fastest solar/hydrogen ship & floating laboratory

Excalibur, Pendragon & Merlin

Anti piracy weapon & ship security system

George Franks

Legal and intelligence trust manager, Swindles & Gentry

HAL

The onboard AI supercomputer ship manager

Jill Bird

Senior BBC news world service anchor

John Storm

Ocean adventurer, amateur anthropologist, & marine archaeologist

Katy, Kitty

The ships cat and lucky mascot

Professor Douglas Storm

John Storm's uncle, designer of Elizabeth Swann

Professor Jacques Pierre Daccord

UNESCO sunken realms division, conservationist

Sam Hollis

BBC & Sky freelance investigative reporter Caribbean regions

Scott Tremaine

Treasure hunting professional & ships captain

Shui Razor

Japanese privateer, ocean conservationist and historian

Sir Rodney Baskerville

Professor of Maritime History & oceanographer

Steve Green

Freelance reporter, friend of Charley Temple

Suki Hall

A marine biologist, admirer of John's work

Tom Hudson

Sky News Editor, always looking for an exclusive

Trisha Lippard

Cleopatra's call sign to protect her royal identity

 

 

CHARACTERS: ANTAGONISTS

DESCRIPTION

Alexander Spotswood

Ambitious, (disgruntled) Governor of Virginia

Billy (Bones) One Eye

Pirate sailor, deadly marksman ex marines SBS

Captain Flint

John Long's pet parrot, pieces of eight

Commander James William Maynard

British Royal Navy, MOD, Antiquities & Acquisitions, Special Ops

Hispaniola, The

Lord Huntington's converted Arctic survey vessel

Jack Boon (Black Jack)

Pirate computer expert hacker

King Charles II

British Empire colonial slave trader, commissioner of privateers

King James II

British Royal African Company, slave trader, bloody triangle

Lieutenant Robert Maynard

British naval officer, HMS Pearl, who tortured Blackbeard

Lord James Huntington

Opportunist, British Geographical Society

Robin (John) Longstride

Pirate leader, bare knuckle fighter with silvery tongue

William Gray

Cashiered US Navy Captain, snitch & mastermind

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHARACTERS | GOLD | MEDIA | MOVIES | SCREENPLAY | SUBMARINES

 

 

 

 

 This website is Copyright Cleaner Oceans Foundation Ltd., April 2023. Asserted as per the Berne Convention.

In this fictional story, the characters and events are the product of the author's imagination.

 

 

 

 

SUBMARINES A TO Z INDEX - OPERATION NEPTUNE - A JOHN STORM OCEAN AND CLIMATE ADVENTURE - FEATURING THE LOST CITY OF ATLANTIS, NUCLEAR POWERED WEAPONS OF WAR MASS DESTRUCTION - POLLUTION FROM ATOMIC RADIATION REACTORS MISSILES & TORPEDOES